Blood Relation questions are an integral part of IBPS PO, IBPS Clerk, SBI PO, SBI Clerk, SSC CGL, SSC CHSL and other competitive exams. Read on as we discuss statement and symbol based blood relation questions and the logical reasoning needed to solve these questions.
Irrespective of which competitive exam you are writing- IBPS PO, IBPS Clerk, SBI PO, SBI Clerk, SSC CGL, SSC CHSL and other competitive exams, there is no running away from blood relation questions and the logical reasoning that goes into solving them. In our previous blog in this series we discussed the basic logical reasoning needed to solve blood relation questions. Taking that forward, in this blog we will discuss blood relation questions where the relations are expressed in terms of statements and symbols along with logical reasoning tricks.
Set I – Blood Relation Questions where Relations are in form of Statements
One of the ways, in which blood relation questions are framed, is where relations are based on given statements. In such blood relation questions, the relationship between two people is given indirectly through their relation with other people and you have to find the direct relation between the two people. Such blood relation questions can be easily solved by plotting a line diagram.
Problem 1: D is the brother of B, M is the brother of B, K is the father of M and T is the wife of K. How is B related to T?
The first reaction on reading blood relation questions like this is- The here is too much information in the question and also the information given is very confusing. But hey, relax! Just grab a pen and paper and start plotting the family tree diagram and the question will just fall in place.
You must note in the above diagram, that we haven’t assigned any gender to B because the gender of B is not clear from any of the statements given in the question.
Now from this diagram we can conclude that D, B and M are siblings and K is their father while M is their mother. So we can easily say that M is the mother of B, but the question asked the relation the other way round- How is B related to M? We do not know the gender of B which implies that B can either be the son or the daughter.
So the answer here is- Son or Daughter
Problem 2: B is the sister of D, M is the father of D, N is the sister of M. How is B related to N?
Let’s not get confused this time and rather grab a pen and paper to start plotting the diagram.
Now if you notice in this diagram there are 2 generations that are being mentioned and here we don’t know the gender of D, but it does not make a difference here because we have been asked the relation between B and N.
We Know B and D are siblings form the diagram, which implies that D is also the father of N. So from this we know that
B is the daughter of M
N is the sister of M
We know that Father’s Sister is called Aunt.
So the relationship between B and N is – B is the niece of N
In blood relation questions like this, you must be careful and remember not to assume anything because if you assume things, you will not get the correct answers in blood relation questions.
Set II – Blood Relation Questions where Relations are in form of Symbols
In blood relation questions under this category, the relationship between two people is given via a symbol and then from the given equation, we need to find the relationship between the two extremes of the equation. What makes such blood relation questions extremely important is that fact that at least 3 mark questions are asked from this section of blood relations in IBPS PO, IBPS Clerk, SBI PO, SBI Clerk, SSC CGL, SSC CHSL and other competitive exams.
Problem: Read the following statements and answer the questions based on them-
P/Q means P is the father of Q
P+Q means P is the mother of Q
P-Q means P is the brother of Q
P*Q means P is the sister of Q
Question 1: If A+B/C-D, then A is D’s ?
1) Sister 2) Grandfather 3) Grandmother 4) Father 5) None of these
Family tree… That must be the first thing coming to your mind on reading the above question. That is definitely one of the ways to solve such blood relation questions. However, the only problem in solving blood relation questions like these by the family tree is the time taken to solve them. Therefore we will discuss a new smart method to solve blood relation questions in just a few seconds! For this method, you need to keep a track of two things-
Let’s use these 2 points and solve this question by the elimination of options. Let’s look at the symbols and what relations they represent-
A+B/C-D => In this notation the first relationship is represented by ‘+’ which stands for ‘mother of’, this implies that A is female and the generation gap between ‘A’ and ‘B’ is ‘1’.
A- +1 B / C – D
Now that we know ‘A’ is female we can eliminate all options according to which ‘A’ is male- Option 2 and Option 4, as these are not possible.
Let’s move ahead, ‘B’ will be male since ‘/’ represents ‘father’ and the generation gap will be ‘1’.
A- +1 B+ /1 C – D
Moving on to the last part of the equation, we know ‘C’ is male since ‘-‘ represents ‘brother of’, however, the generation gap here will be zero since there is no generation difference between siblings.
A- +1 B+ /1 C+ -0 D
We cannot determine the gender of ‘D’ here and the overall generation gap here is 2. So with all the information we can conclude that-
‘A’ is female and the gender gap between ‘A’ and ‘D’ is 2.
This means that we can rule out Option 1, because generation gap between siblings is 0. Now there are 2 options left- Option 3 and Option 5. Given the conditions that we have arrived at, the given relationship between ‘A’ and ‘D’ can be of grandmother or grandaunt.
If you are ready to take a risk or you are running shot of time, you can mark ‘Grandmother’ as the correct answer- Option 4
If you are not willing to take a risk, you can construct a family tree and get the correct answer.
Question 2: Which of the following shows that ‘A is the aunt of E’?
1) A-B+C/D*E 2) A*B/C*D-E 3) A/B*C+D-E 4) A+B-C*D/E 5) None of these
Now if you were to use the family tree method to solve such blood relation questions, you will end up wasting time in Exams, which is not advisable. So we will once again use the method of generation gap and gender. So we will find the gender and generation gap for each of these expressions and the once which satisfies the given conditions will be the correct answer.
We know that ‘A is the aunt of E’, this clearly implies that ‘A’ is female and the gender gap between ‘A’ and ‘E’ is 1. With is information let’s assess all the expressions.
In the first expression => A – B + C / D*
‘A’ is the brother of ‘B’ and is therefore male, so this option is eliminated.
In the second expression => A * B / C * D – E
‘A’ is the sister of ‘B’ which means that ‘A’ is female and the gender gap between ‘A’ and ‘B’ is 0. As ‘B’ is the father of ‘C’, ‘B’ is male and there is a generation gap of 1 between them. Also ‘C’ is female as ‘C’ is the sister of ‘D’ and the generation gap is 0 as they are in the same generation. Moving ahead, ‘D’ is male as ‘D’ is the brother of ‘E’ and the generation gap between them is 0 as they are siblings.
A- *0 B+ /1 C- *0 D+ -0 E => ‘A’ is female and the generation gap between ‘A’ and ‘E’ is 1.
Therefore this option satisfies both the conditions. However, satisfying the conditions in these blood relation questions does not mean it is the correct answer because the relation can be- daughter or mother also.
In the third expression => A / B * C + D – E
‘A’ is the father of ‘B’ and is therefore male, so this option is eliminated.
In the fourth expression => A + B – C * D / E
‘A’ is the mother of ‘B’ which means that ‘A’ is female and the gender gap between ‘A’ and ‘B’ is 1. As ‘B’ is the brother of ‘C’, ‘B’ is male and there is a generation gap of 0 between them. Also ‘C’ is female as ‘C’ is the sister of ‘D’ and the generation gap is 0 as they are in the same generation. Moving ahead, ‘D’ is male as ‘D’ is the father of ‘E’ and the generation gap between them is 1.
A- +1 B+ –0 C- *0 D+ /1 E => ‘A’ is female but the generation gap between ‘A’ and ‘E’ is 2. This expression does not hold true because of the generation gap. Therefore it is eliminated.
In case you are running short of time it is advisable to mark Option 2 as the answer and move ahead. If you have time you can verify by plotting the family tree.
Blood Relation Questions for Practice
Read the following information carefully and answer the questions 1 & 2 given below-
A+B means A is the daughter of B.
A-B means A is the husband of B.
A*B means A is the brother of B.
Question 1: If P+Q-R, which of the following is true?
1) R is the mother of P
2) R is the sister in law of P
3) R is the aunt of P
4) R is the mother in law of P
5) None of these
Question 2: If P*Q+R, which of the following is true?
1) P is the brother of R
2) P is the uncle of R
3) P is the son of R
4) P is the father of P
5) None of these
Question 3: K is brother of T. M is mother of K. W is brother of M. how is W related to T?
1) Maternal Uncle
2) Paternal Uncle
4) Data Inadequate
5) None of these
Question 4: M is sister of K. D is brother of K. F is mother of M. how is K related to F?
3) Son or Daughter
4) Data Inadequate
5) None of these
Do leave your answer to these blood relation questions in the comments below.